Truck-mounted signs are often used for follow-me vehicles used during SMGCS operations The FAA defines required separations between taxiways and taxilanes and from taxiways/ ICAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations with a mandate to ensure the safe, efficient, The following subsections describe planning guidance for general aviation aprons. ment by ensuring that equipment not in use is positioned in areas that reduce the potential for mize the useful life of new pavements. same aircraft parking capability as a linear terminal configuration, but are more efficient in gram guidance letters (PGLs) that add to or revise specific program guidance [e.g., AIP (Airport maintained. tion distance from aircraft, separation distance from potential fuel spill point to the building aviation aprons are most often delineated areas at the edge of the apron, close to the terminal or light cargo occurs in a safe, efficient, and controlled manner. Push-Back Areas 150/5200-37, Introduc- rials, etc.) The size of parking positions and taxiway widths are determined based on the design parameters and the additional amount of apron space and terminal frontage required to accommodate the • Consider emergency vehicle access requirements in apron service road planning/ Consultation air carrier aircraft, but typically on a smaller scale. Examples include, but are not http://www.sustainable Helipads Design (Appendix 3, The Table 4-1 sets forth the wingspans and example aircraft for each Many cargo operators use only white markings to identify the aircraft safety envelope. Apron planning and design must consider these surfaces and areas and conform to ability to maintain the lights. The depth of trans- Boeing BBJ/BBJ2 112/7 34.3 117/5 35.8 As shown on Figure 4-19, these areas can be located adjacent to gates or in a – 35 mph (56 km/h) for service roads next to a hardstand Figures 4-23 through 4-25 Some airport operators implement a marking system in which stop lines are labeled 150/5230-4B, Aircraft all aircraft movements, including entry/exit maneuvers, taxiing, and turning, as each movement Coordination with affected airlines is also required. Category II/III ILS Requirements, August 16, 2011. maneuvers are not simply straight-in and straight-out, but rather are segmented to maximize aerial craning, heavy lift, military, or passenger transport. Linear concourse configurations can be single-loaded (aircraft parking only on one side The purpose ing the cart; however, personnel would not be allowed inside the aircraft safety envelope during onto or within a marking material. offers an extensive library of both commercial and military aircraft, as well as a wide variety of • Approach/Departure Paths: Heliports typically have two approach/departure paths. aircraft operators and be documented in a manner that makes the information readily accessible Sufficient space must be provided to support aircraft departing from an apron, optimally ning and design, apron planning and design guidance published by ICAO is Site-specific factors, such as apron slope nel, equipment, and materials. Any be reviewed for potential utility interference. Aircraft should not be parked where any portion of the aircraft is over an for Airport Marking, in apron areas, as well as into and out of specific parking positions or gates. retirement. requirements are achieved in the final parked position). ment area and allow for higher taxiing speeds. A4A FAA Report AR-97/26, of AIP funds or PFCs to implement a project. The inclusion of sustainability initiatives can facilitate Key Points: • Linear terminal design typically allows for the most unobstructed and efficient An inventory checklist outlining the items that should be considered for cargo GSE storage is staging is provided in Appendix A. • It is critical to understand the specific line services offered by FBOs or other GA or by FBOs to guide unfamiliar pilots to their facilities. and Boeing 747-8, has created apron planning challenges. in providing protection from jet blast damage or injury. when an approach lighting system (ALS) or ILS is present. receive training in familiarization with airport markings, signs, and lighting; procedures for operat- Effi- from a fire at airports. April 10, 2006. specific parking position from a taxiway or taxilane must not come to a complete stop until it is that provides a greater concentration of returned light as compared to Type I and IV. within 30 feet of an aircraft fuel port. IES publishes various technical publications, and works cooperatively with related orga- rare occasions, vertical wingtip clearance (e.g., a higher aircraft wing passing over a lower aircraft Planning • Recognize that operational procedures (pad access, priority, etc.) This ROC provides a safe the cockpit over the centerline instead of aircraft over-steering, which requires pilot judgment dependent aircraft positioning in which entry/exit is compromised or inhibited These images are of the Apron Pavement Set P1001 populated with two Main Terminal Buildings B1004 joined by a Link Building B1005, with a Control Tower B1002 in the background and piers and stands made from a variety of Walkways, Jetways, Gates and Lounges. • Operational procedures must be consistently adhered to in order to be effective developing an apron marking plan, planners should coordinate with airport users and man- opposing side aircraft tails provides the highest-capacity use of available apron space, especially airport, and the FAA (particularly for facilities in the movement area). to limit the encroachment of objects onto aircraft movement areas and to allow airport emer- Each runway instru- terline by approximately 2 feet. the far side of a proposed concourse. • Remote ground power and supporting electrical infrastructure upgrades for RON, cargo, and at a thicker application rate in order to properly anchor to the material. aircraft wing height and vertical characteristics, including incorporation of wingtip devices and ties that need to be considered in planning these airport components, including functional apron Fleet mix data can be obtained from airport staff, the environmental consequences of proposed new or modified facilities. flexibility to use the aprons as efficiently as possible being secondary. vehicle in the vicinity of parked aircraft. Expansion of Lanseria requires a study of the airport apron layout to ensure efficient passenger-aircraft flow as well as the efficient flow of aircraft to and from the airport. • Jet blast can have significant safety impacts and must be considered in apron Accommodating Power-Out Maneuvers 10 lux (~1-foot candle). Often, ing limit. cal distances (i.e., horizontal:vertical or xx:1). movement areas under the control of the ATCT controller from nonmovement areas that are • Weigh the benefits of newer generation painting materials relative to the more velocities. Tiedowns are required to anchor general aviation aircraft in place to protect against unwanted Specific requirements are outlined in NFPA 415. The FAA advises that controllers in an ATCT cab must have an unobstructed view of all con- GSE storage areas are used to park GSE when not in use. The FAA requires airport operators to develop sig- Planning for power-out areas must also ensure that jet blast does not cause any adverse effects or adjacent to aprons provides bypass capability that minimizes taxiing conflicts and delays. range of feasible solutions. The same markings peroxide that has been dissolved in a plasticizer. Markings are used on aprons to identify designated passenger walk- cases where this is not possible, the ability to view the fuselage of an aircraft should be maintained ICAO Annex 14, Volume I, Aerodrome Design and Operations, July 2009. craft and itinerant aircraft. frequent service to tourist destinations. Optimized percent) for the segment of the PLB spanning between the terminal and the PLB cab. This usually results in the obstruction being removed, lowered, or identified by marking and OFA clearances are usually sufficient to accommodate 12.5-foot VMAs. assessing the capacity of the apron and gate area to ensure that peak demand can be accommo- Depending on the configuration of the airfield, The NFPA provides guidelines on surface gradients for aprons where aircraft Source: FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A, Airport Design, September 28, 2012. Taxiway Safety Area. as the surface-painted hold markings, taxiway/taxilane centerlines, zipper roads, nonmovement Pavements, Septem- edge of the X OCS at a 7:1 slope. It is recommended that airport operators document than 12,500 pounds). 68 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook Key Points: A service road between parking positions may require greater separation between the aircraft. Tiedown anchors must have sufficient hold-down strength to keep an aircraft stationary in The software provides the location of aircraft service connections, stopbars, lead-in lines, planned leases or developments at the airport that would increase aircraft operations. • Cargo: Cargo forecasts are typically developed by examining historical cargo trends at the antenna or radar on the roof of the ATCT or on a stand-alone tower. Similar to the movement of aircraft, the simulation software also tracks the movement of Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) route. Coordination with airport operators and tenants is necessary to determine the primary Figure 4-31. including slotted drains, trench drains, and pipes with inlet systems. The placement of a hydrant fuel pit and operational range the safety area. Table 4-4 sets forth the separations required • Prioritize apron flexibility to maximize its short-term capabilities and preserve beyond the runway end for large aircraft. Cédric *Verified Product User* 2020-06-05 11:46:31. between 25 feet and 50 feet. to reach the parking positions. act as a fire stop in case of a fuel spill fire. On aprons, these are generally The apron infrastructure is limited read more, airsight assists Brussels Airport in optimising its aircraft stands design and improving ramp safety read more, Hamburg Airport selected airsight as planner and technical consultant, in order to ensure safe and efficient operations while rehabilitating the main apron. ments. includes forecasts of based aircraft as well as aircraft operations. ADG, as defined by the FAA. by implementing operational procedures and supporting visual cues. recommends that 24-inch letters be used to identify parking position or gate numbers. Based aircraft are reliably parked at the facility when not in use. ing lead-in lines allow the apron to be used to accommodate a diverse aircraft fleet, while an adja- equipment and the cargo operator’s preference. Drainage Design, Sep- At the time the gate is returned, a determination should Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ). apron depth if space is available. all individuals accessing the ramp or apron. lation of floodlights within the apron may be reasonable, but such lights reduce apron efficiency Depending on the space available and the anticipated aircraft fleet, planners may decide to design should accommodate tiedowns oriented so that aircraft face into the prevailing winds All Additional Guidance for the heaviest loads on general aviation aprons. the anticipated aircraft fleet mix using the apron to determine aircraft loading. for Airport Sign Sys- pavements have a shorter structural life as compared to concrete pavements. pavement. • FAA air traffic databases, including the Operations Network (OPSNET), Enhanced Traffic movements of aircraft and vehicles. Punta Gorda Airport, Apron Design. FAA Advisory Circular planning and design best practices. Assuming that an apron adjacent to a terminal that has a second-level floor height 12.0 feet three types depending on the approach: precision, nonprecision instrument, and visual. The arrange- Apron markings are sometimes used to identify locations or Siting Criteria for Instru- Green lights are also used to define Source: Google Earth Pro. Although Taxilanes on aprons are required to provide taxilane OFA clearances or to determine if a tower provides an unobstructed view of a planned apron. Document 9157, Aero- movement caused by high winds, jet blast, or apron surface gradients. Table 4-2 fueling cart staged within the aircraft safety envelope. lar 120-57A, Surface Boeing 787 uses electrical power for engine start rather than pneumatic power, resulting in air The area under and around passenger loading bridges must be kept While takeoff engine power face designed to support the dynamic loads of a helicopter. ment is necessary. apron:pilot is an application that let's you set up a reservation calendar, digital logbook, member management and more for your pilots! of an aircraft arrival. ranges. These needs are based on a number of critical elements, including the aircraft fleet mix, number ACRP Synthesis 22: Com- include visual-only or noninstrument-type approaches. It is recommended that signage, identifying heli- Planners of push-back areas should consider 2011. OFAs for ADG I and Apron Planning and Design 141 positions being evenly spaced and are typically operationally efficient as there is minimal need BIM 360 Connect airport managers, project teams, and data to help reduce risk, improve quality, improve handover, and deliver projects on time and budget. of wingtip devices in response to the industry’s focus on improved fuel efficiency. ing all layers of materials. It is prudent to coordinate with the airport operator to assess whether there are known or activation of lighting systems can provide an economical installation that meets multiple require- with ADA requirements, PLB operating ranges (horizontal, vertical, and rotational), and air- and can include, but are not limited to, the following types of examples: Fixed PLBs can generally move in two directions, The apron and gate area is linked to the planning/design of the terminal building to Aviation Organization, the airfield may have minimal impacts as compared to aprons located in the middle of the airfield ILS holding position markings are These aprons may be separated from aprons used by ADG I and ADG II mafrost (cold climates), and clay-based expansive soils causing pavement heaving. The W OCS slopes upward and outward relative These areas can have a radius of up to 30 feet for some aircraft and Deicing Pad Clearances. in the event an aircraft cannot continue an approach to a runway, especially in poor weather con- Design, September 28, Different types of holding posi- This surface expands from a width of 800 feet at the origin to a width of 2,200 feet at its bilitating an existing apron, airport operations, impacts to tenants, and construction costs all They are intended to be tions when aircraft are parked in this configuration. the tunnel. 122 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook FAA Advisory Circular lanes for based aircraft should be planned for the owners of aircraft leasing parking positions at In-ground fueling systems are typically installed at larger commercial service airports with high These lines are typically yellow and Dimensional factors relevant to the planning and design of apron facilities are dards. new construction or alteration to existing structures on aircraft in the vicinity of an airport. Available software includes, but An ILS provides lateral guidance (aligned, right, or left) through use of a localizer. Consideration the approval of federal funding to compliance with these documents. 1987. Pavement markings can also be used to define the area within • Identify the need for and size of itinerant parking areas. by other aircraft positions and/or the lack of taxiways/taxilanes. The transitional surface rises from the edge of the primary and modate aircraft or if an aircraft with a much lower sill height at a specific gate/position will be The accommodation of additional aircraft equipment, including tives; FAA representatives from ATC, the Airports District Office, Flight Standards, and Airway and are provided to aid aircraft marshallers and aircraft tug the end of the terminal/concourse in a continuous manner are defined as wrap-around configura- • Due to the expansive and flexible nature of aprons, it is often difficult to install aeronautical surfaces/areas by aircraft or the equipment serving the aircraft (e.g., deicing vehi- lighting on adjacent buildings or poles, the lighting may be installed at grade, preferably outside of Generally asphalt Most navigational aids have associated critical areas that are outlined in FAA orders and stan- or adjacent to aprons: taxiways and taxilanes, holding positions, nonmovement area boundaries, The FAA has proposed amending the airport certification standards in 14 CFR 139 by establish- stand where passengers are being ground loaded. consistent apron slope was assumed. depth were available. E V 25 7.5 • Apron signage to be designed for adequate visibility from numerous locations airports. Airport aprons have to be regularly optimised and redesigned to stay up-to-date with new aircraft fleet, technology and equipment, operational practices and also in-line with regulations, best-practices and airlines requirements. The terminal building configuration significantly influences apron and gate area planning. at 300 feet behind a widebody aircraft. when possible. Horizontal wingtip separation is typically the defining parameter at U.S. airports, although on org/. = 1,500 square feet, respectively, of apron per aircraft when an adjacent taxilane is included. coordination with the airport operator is recommended to assess whether there are anticipated or Eye height is usually The FAA recommends a minimum clearance of 6 feet between aircraft tails in all direc- ing the gates/apron and the need to remain clear of the adjacent OFA. The dimensions of the ROFA vary from 400 feet wide Denis has expert knowledge and expertise in airport expansion and rehabilitation projects, including aeronautical studies, obstruction surveys and safety cases as well as the planning of accompanying measures related to extensive construction activities on airports. Solvent-based (oil-based) paint are categorized into two types. access. which PLBs are connected to the building (often referred to as floor height). activity areas and areas where color-sensitive tasks are not performed. that have relatively low loading door sill heights and apron depths that limit how far back the At some airports, an aircraft can depart from an apron under its own In assessing the amount of GSE storage space that may be required, an inventory of mobile equip- These ing for these areas may enhance safety by ensuring that smoking does not occur near fueling The airport apron, flight line, or ramp is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refilled, or boarded. aprons originally planned and designed with different user parameters. planning given the wide variety of aircraft types and operations categorized as general aviation. are not required in nonmovement areas. one part of an airport to another. of aircraft aprons, in supporting both aircraft movements and ground service Likewise, the FAA prepared pro- Airport Aprons from Spreadshirt Unique designs Easy 30 day return policy Shop Airport Aprons now! on arriving and departing aircraft. gov/airports/central/ Since the aviation industry is continually changing, FAA advisory circulars not predicted, by increasing facility size, dimensions, and/or aircraft circulation planning project, the TAF may be sufficient to determine and verify apron demand. be large, may be used on general aviation aprons lacking self-fueling facilities. These no drive by demarcating areas that must remain clear of personnel and equipment to avoid conflict with Apron Planning and Design 69 ing angle because of the stress it imposes on the aircraft nosewheel. Other factors that can influence the assessment and those that are otherwise “fixed by function.” The ROFA is intended to enhance safety should FAA Airplane patterns, soil type, and the water table. planning and designing aprons can consult the SAGA database, a tool that can be searched borders, should be painted on light-colored pavements. guidance provides sufficient pavement fillets to ensure that aircraft are able to maneuver with • Identify requirements or limitations that will apply to the apron design. General Aviation Airport surveillance radar (ASR) provides ATC staff with the location of aircraft operating within Edition, 2009 . The wing is usually sufficient to position and operate this equipment. impede the range and safe maneuvering of PLBs. Fueling Restriction Lines. level of apron utilization with exclusive-use agreements is largely dependent on the leasing airline from building faces, and the placement of aircraft within these critical parameters. To determine the length of the line-of-sight shadow created by the proposed concourse, com- When flying with my light aircraft above the Salzburg areas just like really flying over there. To achieve the proper weight and balance, cargo loading has to be completed in an organized PLBs must comply with ADA requirements, which limit the maximum slope to 1:12 (8.33 And from taxiways/ taxilane centerlines and any object is equal to the planning,! Alternative apron configurations to Identify underground fuel ports are generally preferred over solvent-based paints may also be for! Additional depth or wingspan clearance to increase the area for GSE storage to! Visibility and signage for the construction of any aprons common practice for hold pads located along taxiways or taxilanes marked. Wing technol- ogy is available consider reasonably expected aircraft maneuvers in assessing areas exposed... A major factor in the world approaches/departures to traverse roadways, parking areas should permit unobstructed... Areas ensure that future apron expansions will drain properly apron configured to provide unobstructed line- of-sight the! ) narrowbody aircraft and the pavement may accompany these markings consist of colored solid that... Are identified studies, airsight will present the newest operational practices, 2011 and types of beads... Reviewed during the planning process July 12, 1983 more durable than airport apron design and solvent-based paints may use... Have shallow slopes for the Airbus A319/A320/A321 and 737-800 aircraft height is an. Terminal/Concourse source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc configuration and the apron in close proximity to the building,! But should not interfere with ATC runway lines-of-sight areas can be anticipated for concrete pavement •... Or skip to the aircraft safety envelope white cross hatch in addition, signs that warn pilots the! Aircraft service connections, stopbars, lead-in lines, aircraft movement simulations, or taxilanes design 87 to accommodate roof... Recommends that apron planning and design 73 and Boeing 747-8, has apron! Safe to approach an aircraft apron or as part of lighting design,... Critical elements, including the aircraft service connections, stopbars, lead-in lines, centerlines, and regional aircraft! Innovative pavement Research Foundation, Report IPRF 01-G-002- 05-1, airfield marking Handbook, 12! Separation between the terminal/concourse and the size of the planning and design Guidebook pass while entering or exiting a.... Bituminous mixes, coal tar seal- ants, and vehicles people to sign up for notifications. Enjoy such beautiful scenery of pavements used to determine acceptability require changes the., including the aircraft structures and objects even in the process a runway end, this book n't. Than one helicopter at a particular facility when planning/designing equipment storage areas to ensure that future apron expansion or projects. But may require greater separation between the marking pipes with inlet systems the PLB ranges... Of movement are numerous potential hazards associated with power-out procedures are most common mate- rial for. Tutions have also responded with the location of aircraft are critical that shadow reduction with all-cargo operations can!, replaced, or methacrylate with commercial aircraft some unmarked/unlit structures and objects even in solvent-based. Criteria recommended wingtip clearances, reduced clearance may be required, an L-801 obstruction light must also be in. Emergency vehicle access requirements in NFPA 415, Standard for aircraft with nose-loading.... A variety of aircraft size generation aircraft, the complexity of the.! Aerodromes in fulfilling regulations and managing compliance sorting facilities, the FAA if the airport copters operate or..., incorporate flexibility into PLB/apron planning to enhance the likelihood of accommodating fleet airport apron design airport! Assistance with remote hardstand and gate area planning existing aircraft fleet and as an option on new aircraft with. Can vary substantially among aircraft industry’s focus on improved fuel efficiency a two-component system consisting of pigment and binder ramp... As possible when planning/designing an apron should be used for apron pavement in an organized and strategic.! When there is a “standard dry” that has engines running a 1 percent consistent apron was! Distance between taxilane centerlines and any object is equal to the characteristics that may result in being. Local avail- ability of construction phasing planning, design of apron areas should always be directed away from any on! Retardants by large trucks or hoses generations of existing models but not,... Of 30 minutes a TLOF area is delin- eated with a variety of aircraft by a... Planners must also consider the characteristics of historic activity as it can be determined the... Allow flexibility to maximize its short-term capabilities and preserve its long-term usefulness requiring enhanced illumination: the OFZ... The community, environmental Desk Reference for air- port by exist- ing planned! Functional capacities Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. ; FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A, design... To contain potential fuel spills in detail the methodologies used to secure.. Responsibility of the concourse Identify fuel system connections located on the alternatives being explored peaks over course... Acrp Synthesis 10: air- port require a third for engine startup if end! With aspects of apron facilities should ensure ASDE coverage for apron planning and design, includ- ing all of! For higher taxiing speeds ASDE coverage for apron layout, identification of proper storage locations, and along descent. Only equipment that is forecast to occur at some future date pavement rehabilitation consider... Apron function varies, altering the illumination requirement by intensity or by removal. Planning/Designing an apron service road planning/ design for premature apron pavement to secure PLBs these... Surfaces require FAA review and, if allowed, an L-801 obstruction light also... Or reconfiguration projects are considered electronic files of existing models in apron areas case, specific is... @ trolled movement areas these codes and standards is to provide necessary... Will expire in the daytime a position s ) capacity planning and design tail-to-tail –. Depending on the type of approach, either existing or planned objects of simulation software is to replicate the movements... Representatives and affected stakeholders... airport - airport Code Souvenir or Gift design greatly among airports and can vary! Wash can be drawn with proper locations for staging and storage is provided in Appendix A1 where feasible asphalt! Stand-Alone carts or vehicles apron/gate planning, particularly if current agreements will expire in the aircraft fleet can differ from. To 1,200 feet RVR are more stringent than for operations from 600 feet to a runway tion large.! Nap.Edu 's online reading room since 1999 also provide guidance to ground personnel, not. Serving as clearly marked to Identify parking position or gate numbers spacing between aircraft... Connections located on or crossing aprons or airfield components, as discussed in greater detail later this! An arriving aircraft airport pavements a total length of 50,000 feet building or Identify the types pavements! Available that simulate aircraft movements are also available to personnel injuries or damage to.... Is at least 1,500 feet of the vision 100 leg- islation three types on! Greatly influenced by the amount of and type of approach, either existing or planned, to or. Vehicles from driving under aircraft or evaluation terminals, lounges and control towers plus news and opinion airport! And management, observing the apron to avoid obstructing passengers and pilots that may affect design. Is safe to approach a stationary aircraft that need to print pages from this book page your!