Philippines During American Period Prepared by: Rowella Reyeg Jeanne Pauline Sevilla Marlon Juan Jairius Sanchez John Marc Lanzarote Joanna Fe Ancheta Francia Michael Bilasano Gio Lorenzo Calseña 2. From 1521 to 1821, the Spanish treasury had to subsidize the Philippines in the amount of P 250,000.00 per annum due to the poor financial condition of the country, which can be primarily attributed to the poor revenue collection system. Philippine-American colonialism also transformed both the Philippines and the United States in cultural terms. American settlement in the Philippines began during the Spanish colonial period. After signing the treaty, President McKinley … An Executive Commission made up of more than 30 members of the old Filipino political elite had been cooperating with Japanese military authorities in Manila since January. The Philippine flag was hoisted on June 12, 1898 as a symbol of independence. The relative ease with which the United States dispatched the Spanish squadron in Manila Bay was only the beginning of what would become a nearly 50-year American presence in the Philippines. They had already failed in a direct attempt to amend the tariff on Philippine imports but found that the respectable cloak of the advocacy of independence increased the effectiveness of their efforts.  Faced with defeat, the Philippines was ceded to the United States by Spain in 1898 after a payment of US$ 20 … The last governor-general, Frank Murphy, became the first high commissioner, with more of a diplomatic than a governing role. The American colonialist had a stereotype image of the Filipinos, an image that may have been largely fostered by Dean C. Worcester's book, The Philippine Islands and their People. Harrison was the only governor-general appointed by a Democratic president in the first 35 years of U.S. rule. [11] These individuals were not covered under the American Homecoming Act. "Explainer: How Can You Be Half-American and Still Not a Citizen? 5. [20], Today, the Philippines has a large population of Americans and people with American roots, including a significant Amerasian population;[17] there are estimates of 52,000 to 250,000 Amerasians in the Philippines in 1992. The Nacionalista Party patched up its internal quarrels and nominated Quezon for president and Osmeña for vice president. [7] The Japanese invasion of the Philippines brought about an abrupt end to the distinctions of race, due to the external threat caused by the invasion.[8]. The ilustrados were the educated sons of landed and wealthy natives (Wurfel, 1988: 5). The old wooden bridges were repaired. He had been sent by Woodrow Wilson with specific instructions to prepare the Philippines for ultimate independence, a goal that Wilson enthusiastically supported. The Americans, until the mid-1990s, had a heavy presence in the cities of Angeles and Olongapo, northeast of Metro Manila, due to the presence of large US military bases there. This is one indication of the high priority given to education in U.S. policy. The Philippine Government during the American Colonial Period and the American Governors-General President William McKinley : Spain ceded the Philippines in 1898 after the Spanish-American War. The population of the poblacion was 2,872 and Lugait had 397. Public system of education Education became a very important issue for the United States colonial government, since it allowed it to spread their cultural values, particularly the English language, to the Filipino people. The rule of the United States over the Philippines had two phases. Pre-Colonial period refers to the art before the coming of the first colonizers. But neither the Progressives nor their successors in the 1920s, the Democrats, ever gained more than one-third of the seats in the legislature. One is the introduction of free public instruction for all children of school age and two, the use of English as medium of instruction in all levels of education in public schools. This period saw the addition of a colorful language, the English language, as an indispensable tool for literature and communication. The roof is typically made of galvanized iron, while the walls are made of concrete. [18][19], A 2012 paper by an Angeles, Pampanga, Philippines Amerasian college research study unit suggests that the number of military origin, biracial Filipino Amerasians probably lie between 200,000 and 250,000, and possibly substantially more. Endorsed by Quezon and accepted with alacrity by the Manila legislature, it provided for a 10-year commonwealth during which the U.S. would retain jurisdiction over defense and foreign affairs. Bungalows have gone a long way in the Philippines, with new units sporting minimalist designs. Chapter I of this dissertation presented an overview The Fil.-American was resulted in the defeat of Gen. Miguel Malvar in 1903. Owners of mills and large plantations profited most, thus reinforcing the political dominance of the landed elite. [3] The Education Act of 1901 authorized the colonial government to recruit American teachers to help establish the new educational system, and 80 former soldiers became teachers. -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. In the Philippines itself, the perpetuation of American dominance had tragic effects for the Filipino people and the Philippine nation-state. Membership to both chambers was by way of a plurality vote: in single-member 2. On July 4, 1902, the two sides agreed to an armistice. The Philippines encompasses about 7,100 islands and sits nearly 8,600 miles away … She was Manuel V. Pangilinan's grandmother. The Nacionalista Party under the leadership of Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña dominated Philippine politics from 1907 until independence. It is also during this period where modern art slowly penetrating the art world. From 1909 the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act allowed free entry of Philippine products into the U.S. market, at the same time U.S. products, mostly manufactured, were exempted from tariff in the Philippines. American Colonization When American colonial rule was established, the United States introduced the American way of life through education, media, and language. [22] In addition, there is a population of Filipino Americans, who were born in the United States, who are immigrating to the Philippines, known as "baliktad". The Philippine-American War lasted three years and killed tens of thousands of Filipinos and about 4,000 Americans. “ The first battle of the Spanish-American War thrilled the American nation. The paper asserts that the Angeles-Manila-Olongapo Triangle (AMO) contains the highest concentration of biracial Anglo, African and Latino Amerasians in the world. American settlement in the Philippines began during the Spanish colonial period. Under Jones Act provisions, the commission was abolished and was replaced by a 24-member Senate, almost wholly elected. This was the age of Modern Media characterized by the Introduction of new newspapers in 1898, film in 1904, and radio broadcasting in 1922. AMERICAN PERIOD. Not much focus was Spanish-American War in the Philippines Battle at Manila Bay (May 1, 1898) • First major engagement of the Spanish- American War. Despite a desire, at one point, to return to Manila in order to surrender, Quezon was persuaded to leave the Philippines in March 1942 on a U.S. submarine; he was never to return. But this unprecedented transfer of sovereignty was decided upon in the dark days of the Great Depression of the 1930s—and with the help of some incongruous allies. During Harrison’s term, a Democratic-controlled Congress in Washington, D.C., hastened to fulfill long-standing campaign promises to the same end. At the time of the Treaty, U.S. already controlled the city of Manila, but had not ventured into other parts of the Philippines Islands. Culture and traditions were passed on during community gathering through stories, songs, chants, music, and dance. They were soon joined by 48 teachers recruited in America who arrived in June 1901 on the ship Sheridan, named after Philip Sheridan and by 523 others who arrived on August 1, 1901, on the Thomas. The Filipino political genius was best reflected in an extralegal institution—the political party. Here’s a few fun facts as well as a few specific ways in which American culture has influenced Filipino culture. [14] The Philippine population figure was 16,000,303. The commonwealth period was intended to be devoted to preparation for economic and political independence and perfection of democratic institutions. In 1910, a new group started to write in English. American school structures and 8urricula were transplanted to the Philippine school systeffi. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE DURING AMERICAN PERIOD Brief History The Filipino revolutionist won against the Spaniards who colonized Philippines for more than 300 years. Philippine literary production during the American Period in the Philippines was spurred by two significant developments in education and culture. When America signed the Treaty of Paris after the Spanish-American war, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines which was purchased from Spain for a mere $20 million dollars was given to America. The American Soldier and the Soldier's Letter were the first English-language newspapers in the Philippines, published by enlisted men of the 18th Minnesota Volunteers in the U.S. Army during the Philippine-American War of 1898. After the conclusion of that war, Philippine revolutionaries declared independence as the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines. The following month he was inaugurated as the last chief executive of the commonwealth, and on July 4, 1946, when the Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed, he became its first president. The Jones Law (Philippine Autonomy Act) of 1916 transformed the unicameral Philippine legislature into a bicameral legislature composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. History of America in the Philippines. The percentage of farmers under share tenancy doubled between 1900 and 1935, and the frustration of the tenants erupted in three small rebellions in central Luzon during the 1920s and ’30s. The act was a fulfillment of the vague pledge in the Jones Act; it was also responsive to the demands of a series of “independence missions” sent to Washington by the Philippine legislature. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE DURING AMERICAN PERIOD Brief History The Filipino revolutionist won against the Spaniards who colonized Philippines for more than 300 years. Examples: Burnham Park, Kennon Road, Camp JohnHay etc. Even the expansion of an educated middle class did not necessarily result in a transformation of the pattern of power. Not much focus was But those men came for the most part from the landed elite; preservation of their political and economic position was incompatible with equalizing opportunity. The colonialization period of the Philippines formally ended in 1946, yet scholars continue to debate about the lasting impacts of American settlement in the Philippines. American Period “Long live America” Significant legislation enacted during the American Period: Philippine Bill of 1902 – Set the ceilings on the hectarage of private individuals and corporations may acquire: 16 has. Transferring governmental responsibility to those capable of undertaking it was not consistent with building a social and economic base for political democracy. Photo via Lamudi. The Japanese attack of the Philippines on December 8, 1941, came at a time when the U.S. military buildup had hardly begun. One is the introduction of free public instruction for all children of school age and two, the use of English as medium of instruction in all levels of education in public schools. Many of these people settled in the Philippines and had Philippine spouses. Japanese aggression in China prompted much attention to military preparedness. Wanting to maintain a stronghold over the island nation as a stepping stone to Japan and continental Asia, the United States maintained authority of the archipelago and the Philippine–American War ensued. They were elected overwhelmingly. Philippine Dance in the American Period Dance Pinoy. The Federalists survived with a new name, Progressives, and a new platform, ultimate independence after social reform. It was one thing to capture the islands, but another thing entirely to set up a working administration. Another style that was introduced during the American colonial period, bungalows are the most common type of house in the Philippines. Philippine Music during the American and Japanese periods. [5] 15% of the children of Americans who settled in the Philippines were orphans. The Philippine Commission had appropriated three hundred thousand pesos (P300,000.00) for the completion of this road. American period is one of the turning points which made our Philippine literary tradition colorful and interesting. The United States invaded the Philippines, which was then governed by Spain as the Spanish East Indies, during the Spanish-American War. Inevitably, the Americans' entry into the country brought with it their cosmopolitan and commercial culture. Soon after the U.S. landings on Leyte in October 1944, commanded by MacArthur, civil government was returned to the commonwealth, at least in name. But, when Quezon came to Washington the following year to work for a new bill, the same alliance of forces in the U.S. Congress obliged by producing the almost identical Tydings-McDuffie Act. The first phase was from 1898 to 1935, during which time Washington defined its colonial mission as one of tutelage and preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. Schurman reported back that Filipinos wanted ultimate independence, but this had no immediate impact on policy. Filipinos were to draft their own constitution, subject to the approval of the U.S. president. But for our purposes, we shall consider three stages through which the literature has passed. [15] In 2012, the number of American mestizos is estimated to be 52,000. 630,000 pe… Franklin D. Roosevelt. (Pangilinan, a Filipino businessman. As president of the Senate, Roxas became, in effect, MacArthur’s candidate for president. 7:06 PM In 1898, the United States colonized the Philippines. However, persons who are ineligible to pay the residence tax may be issued a certificate for twenty centavos. The peace movements started as early as 1900. for private individuals and 1,024 has. colonial period that it is generally regarded as the "greatest contribution" of American colonialism in the Philippines.t This article deals with that educational impact. This was done as a response to an observed “keen demand for an American newspaper with a daily supply of American news.” Independence - America helped the Philippines to eliminate the Spaniards in the country thus helping the Filipinos to end the suffering from the Spanish reign. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. [2] America then held the Philippines until granting full independence on July 4, 1946. Contributory to the people's eventual surrender was an ongoing armed struggle against Spain. The proliferation of musical genres, forms, and ensembles of the Lowlands of Luzon during the American and Japanese periods. In 1907 the Philippine Commission, which had been acting as both legislature and governor-general’s cabinet, became the upper house of a bicameral body. Philippine political cartoons gained full expression during the American era. Filipino and American forces, under Gen. Jonathan M. Wainwright, surrendered in May. [citation needed] However, this abruptly ended after the Philippines gained independence from the United States in 1946 and Many Americans chose to permanently settle in the Philippines. Most of them were professionals[vague], but missionaries continued to settle the country. One of the greatest contributions of the Americans to the Filipinos is their educational system. Even before the fall of Bataan Peninsula to the Japanese in April 1942, guerrilla units were forming throughout the Philippines. Americans built roads, streets and bridges for efficient movement of products and services. Education in the Philippines during the American Period (1898-1942 The Bulletin started as a shipping journal and was published and distributed for free. And this led to a guerrilla war against the Americans. The school population expanded fivefold in a generation; education consumed half of governmental expenditures at all levels, and educational opportunity in the Philippines was greater than in any other colony in Asia. Philippines - Philippines - The period of U.S. influence: The juxtaposition of U.S. democracy and imperial rule over a subject people was sufficiently jarring to most Americans that, from the beginning, the training of Filipinos for self-government and ultimate independence—the Malolos Republic was conveniently ignored—was an essential rationalization for U.S. hegemony in the islands. Iligan’s population then was only 3,269 including that of Lugait its lone barrio and now a town of Misamis Oriental. In 1900 Americans H.G. Whereas Americans formed 51 percent of the civil service in 1903, they were only 29 percent in 1913 and 6 percent in 1923. The Jones Act, passed in 1916, would have fixed a definite date for the granting of independence if the Senate had had its way, but the House prevented such a move. The differences between the two groups became an important factor in early postwar politics. In the same year, 1899, more schools were opened, this time, with 24 English-language teachers and 4500 students. [citation needed], By 1913, there were more than 1,400 mestizos with American parentage, the product of the nearly 8,000 Americans living in the Philippines. Quezon pushed significant reform legislation through the National Assembly, but implementation was feeble, despite the rapid accumulation of power in his hands. Worcester, an academic from the University of Michigan, first came to the Philippines in 1887 as a … The first party, the Federal Party, was U.S.-backed and stressed cooperation with the overlords, even to the point of statehood for the Philippines. There was little more than one decade of thoroughly U.S. administration in the islands, however—too short a time in which to establish lasting patterns. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The 1940s was a period of large-scale American immigration to the Philippines. American Colonization of the Philippines The Spanish-American war which started in Cuba, changed the history of the Philippines. Osmeña, though he had the advantages of incumbency, was old and tired and did not fully use the political tools he possessed. Philippine literary production during the American Period in the Philippines was spurred by two significant developments in education and culture. The commonwealth was inaugurated on November 15, 1935. Changes in Philippine Culture. By 1916 Filipino dominance in both the legislative and judicial branches of government also served to restrict the U.S. executive and administrative roles. McKinley sent out the Second Philippine Commission in 1900, under William Howard Taft; by July 1901 it had established civil government. American Period 1898 - 1940 . But even before the tragic events of World War II, the transition did not run smoothly. Defense and foreign affairs remained exclusive U.S. prerogatives. On May 1, 1898, the Americans led by U.S.Navy Admiral George Dewey, in participation of Emilio Aguinaldo, attacked the Spanish Navy in Manila Bay. The Americans established the University of the Philippines, the country’s State University, in 1908. Freedom of religion was practiced. CULTURE AND TRADITION ARCHITECTURE The progress of science and technology in the Philippines continued under American rule of the islands. [23] The total number of US citizens living in the Philippines is more than 220,000,[1] with estimates reaching as high as 600,000.[24]. The majority are to be found in Angeles, which has the largest proportion of Amerasians in the Philippines. 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